Details of treasury / other financial risks

Philips is exposed to several types of financial risks. This note further analyzes financial risks. Philips does not purchase or hold derivative financial instruments for speculative purposes. Information regarding financial instruments is included in note (30) Fair value of financial assets and liabilities.

Liquidity risk

Liquidity risk is the risk that an entity will encounter difficulty in meeting obligations associated with financial liabilities.

Liquidity risk for the group is monitored through the Treasury liquidity committee which tracks the development of the actual cash flow position for the group and uses input from a number of sources in order to forecast the overall liquidity position both on a short and long term basis. Group Treasury invests surplus cash in money market deposits with appropriate maturities to ensure sufficient liquidity is available to meet liabilities when due.

The rating of the Company’s debt by major rating services may improve or deteriorate. As a result, Philips’ future borrowing capacity may be influenced and its financing costs may fluctuate. Philips has various sources to mitigate the liquidity risk for the group. At December 31, 2014, Philips had EUR 1,873 million in cash and cash equivalents (2013: EUR 2,465 million), within which short-term deposits of EUR 1,057 million (2013: EUR 1,714 million) and other liquid assets of EUR 121 million (2013: EUR 18 million). Philips pools cash from subsidiaries to the extent legally and economically feasible; cash not pooled remains available for operational or investment needs by the Company.

Furthermore, Philips has a USD 2.5 billion Commercial Paper Program and a EUR 1.8 billion revolving credit facility that can be used for general group purpose and as a backstop for its commercial paper program. In January 2013 the EUR 1.8 billion facility was extended by 2 years until February 18, 2018. The facility has no financial covenants and repetitive material adverse change clauses and can be used for general group purposes. As of December 31, 2014, Philips did not have any amounts outstanding under any of these facilities. Additionally Philips also held EUR 75 million of equity investments in available-for-sale financial assets (fair value at December 31, 2014).

Currency risk

Currency risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in foreign exchange rates. Currency fluctuations may impact Philips’ financial results. Philips is exposed to currency risk in the following areas:

  • Transaction exposures, related to forecasted sales and purchases and on-balance-sheet receivables/payables resulting from such transactions
  • Translation exposure of net income in foreign entities
  • Translation exposure of foreign-currency intercompany and external debt and deposits
  • Translation exposure of foreign-currency-denominated equity invested in consolidated companies
  • Translation exposure to equity interests in non-functional-currency investments in associates and available-for-sale financial assets.

It is Philips’ policy that significant transaction exposures are hedged by the businesses. Accordingly, all businesses are required to identify and measure their exposures resulting from material transactions denominated in currencies other than their own functional currency. Philips’ policy generally requires committed foreign currency exposures to be fully hedged using forwards. Anticipated transactions may be hedged using forwards or options or a combination thereof. The amount hedged as a proportion of the total anticipated exposure identified varies per business and is a function of the ability to project cash flows, the time horizon for the cash flows and the way in which the businesses can adapt to changing levels of foreign-currency exchange rates. As a result, hedging activities cannot and will not eliminate all currency risks for these anticipated transaction exposures. Generally, the maximum tenor of these hedges is 18 months.

The following table outlines the estimated nominal value in millions of euros for transaction exposure and related hedges for Philips’ most significant currency exposures consolidated as of December 31, 2014:

Philips Group
Estimated transaction exposure and related hedges in millions of euros
2014
 
maturity 0-60 days
maturity over 60 days
 
exposure
hedges
exposure
hedges
Balance as of December 31, 2014
 
 
 
 
Receivables
 
 
 
 
Functional vs. exposure currency
 
 
EUR vs. USD
584
(564)
1,887
(1,295)
USD vs. EUR
161
(145)
737
(378)
EUR vs. GBP
80
(63)
372
(192)
USD vs. JPY
37
(35)
173
(106)
EUR vs. JPY
40
(39)
173
(122)
EUR vs. CNY
44
(41)
107
(81)
GBP vs. USD
16
(16)
95
(71)
EUR vs. PLN
45
(43)
82
(44)
EUR vs. RON
14
(11)
74
(31)
EUR vs. CHF
14
(12)
68
(33)
Others
193
(176)
561
(302)
Total 2014
1,228
(1,145)
4,329
(2,655)
Total 2013
971
(874)
3,691
(2,239)
 
 
 
 
 
Payables
 
 
 
 
Functional vs. exposure currency
 
 
EUR vs. USD
(281)
269
(1,069)
603
USD vs. CNY
(75)
72
(141)
96
EUR vs. PLN
(43)
34
(38)
19
BRL vs. USD
(33)
24
(27)
14
EUR vs. GBP
(32)
26
(147)
76
USD vs. EUR
(28)
18
(78)
31
IDR vs. USD
(26)
16
INR vs. USD
(21)
21
(18)
18
USD vs. SGD
(13)
12
(21)
17
USD vs. MYR
(12)
12
(10)
10
Others
(52)
48
(112)
56
Total 2014
(616)
552
(1,661)
940
Total 2013
(457)
502
(1,397)
831

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The derivatives related to transactions are, for hedge accounting purposes, split into hedges of on-balance-sheet accounts receivable/payable and forecasted sales and purchases. Changes in the value of on-balance-sheet foreign-currency accounts receivable/payable, as well as the changes in the fair value of the hedges related to these exposures, are reported in the income statement under costs of sales. Hedges related to forecasted transactions, where hedge accounting is applied, are accounted for as cash flow hedges. The results from such hedges are deferred in other comprehensive income within equity to the extent that the hedge is effective. As of December 31, 2014, a loss of EUR 13 million was deferred in equity as a result of these hedges. The result deferred in equity will be released to earnings mostly during 2015 at the time when the related hedged transactions affect the income statement. During 2014, a net gain of EUR 1 million was recorded in the consolidated statement of income as a result of ineffectiveness on certain anticipated cash flow hedges.

The total net fair value of hedges related to transaction exposure as of December 31, 2014 was an unrealized liability of EUR 27 million. An instantaneous 10% increase in the value of the euro against all currencies would lead to an increase of EUR 96 million in the value of the derivatives; including a EUR 73 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the US dollar against the euro, a EUR 14 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the Japanese yen against euro, a EUR 14 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the Pound sterling, partially offset by a EUR 46 million decrease related to foreign exchange transactions of the euro against the US dollar.

The EUR 96 million increase includes a gain of EUR 28 million that would impact the income statement, which would largely offset the opposite revaluation effect on the underlying accounts receivable and payable, and the remaining gain of EUR 68 million would be recognized in equity to the extent that the cash flow hedges were effective.

The total net fair value of hedges related to transaction exposure as of December 31, 2013 was an unrealized asset of EUR 44 million. An instantaneous 10% increase in the value of the euro against all currencies would lead to an increase of EUR 63 million in the value of the derivatives; including a EUR 56 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the US dollar against the euro, a EUR 15 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the Pound Sterling against euro, a EUR 13 million increase related to foreign exchange transactions of the Japanese yen, partially offset by a EUR 45 million decrease related to foreign exchange transactions of the euro against the US dollar.

Foreign exchange exposure also arises as a result of inter-company loans and deposits. Where the Company enters into such arrangements the financing is generally provided in the functional currency of the subsidiary entity. The currency of the Company’s external funding and liquid assets is matched with the required financing of subsidiaries either directly through external foreign currency loans and deposits, or synthetically by using foreign exchange derivatives, including cross currency interest rate swaps and foreign exchange forward contracts. In certain cases where group companies may also have external foreign currency debt or liquid assets, these exposures are also hedged through the use of foreign exchange derivatives. Changes in the fair value of hedges related to this exposure are either recognized within financial income and expenses in the statements of income, accounted for as cash flow hedges or where such loans would be considered part of the net investment in the subsidiary then net investment hedging would be applied. Translation exposure of foreign-currency equity invested in consolidated entities may be hedged. If a hedge is entered into, it is accounted for as a net investment hedge. Net current period change, before tax, of the currency translation reserve of EUR 600 million relates to the positive impact of the weaker EURO against the foreign currencies of countries in which Philips’ operations are located, partially offset by net investment hedging instruments. The change in currency translation reserve was mostly related to development of the USD and to a lesser extent to other currencies such as the CNY, GBP and INR.

As of December 31, 2014 cross currency interest rate swaps and foreign exchange forward contracts with a fair value liability of EUR 655 million and external bond funding for a nominal value of USD 4,059 million were designated as net investment hedges of our financing investments in foreign operations. During 2014 a total gain of EUR 0.2 million was recognized in the income statement as ineffectiveness on net investment hedges. The total net fair value of these financing derivatives as of December 31, 2014, was a liability of EUR 623 million. An instantaneous 10% increase in the value of the euro against all currencies would lead to an increase of EUR 301 million in the value of the derivatives, including a EUR 323 million increase related to the US dollar.

As of December 31, 2013 cross currency interest rate swaps and foreign exchange forward contracts with a fair value liability of EUR 262 million and external bond funding for a nominal value of USD 4,059 million were designated as net investment hedges of our financing investments in foreign operations. During 2013 a total gain of EUR 2 million was recognized in the income statement as ineffectiveness on net investment hedges. The total net fair value of these financing derivatives as of December 31, 2013, was a liability of EUR 260 million. An instantaneous 10% increase in the value of the euro against all currencies would lead to an increase of EUR 228 million in the value of the derivatives, including a EUR 255 million increase related to the US dollar.

Philips does not currently hedge the foreign exchange exposure arising from equity interests in non-functional-currency investments in associates and available-for-sale financial assets.

Interest rate risk

Interest rate risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in market interest rates. Philips had outstanding debt of EUR 4,104 million, which created an inherent interest rate risk. Failure to effectively hedge this risk could negatively impact financial results. At year-end, Philips held EUR 1,873 million in cash and cash equivalents, total long-term debt of EUR 3,712 million and total short-term debt of EUR 392 million. At December 31, 2014, Philips had a ratio of fixed-rate long-term debt to total outstanding debt of approximately 85%, compared to 80% one year earlier.

A sensitivity analysis conducted as of January 2015 shows that if long-term interest rates were to decrease instantaneously by 1% from their level of December 31, 2014, with all other variables (including foreign exchange rates) held constant, the fair value of the long-term debt would increase by approximately EUR 342 million. If there was an increase of 1% in long-term interest rates, this would reduce the market value of the long-term debt by approximately EUR 341 million.

If interest rates were to increase instantaneously by 1% from their level of December 31, 2014, with all other variables held constant, the annualized net interest expense would decrease by approximately EUR 13 million. This impact was based on the outstanding net cash position at December 31, 2014.

A sensitivity analysis conducted as of January 2014 shows that if long-term interest rates were to decrease instantaneously by 1% from their level of December 31, 2013, with all other variables (including foreign exchange rates) held constant, the fair value of the long-term debt would increase by approximately EUR 317 million. If there was an increase of 1% in long-term interest rates, this would reduce the market value of the long-term debt by approximately EUR 251 million.

If interest rates were to increase instantaneously by 1% from their level of December 31, 2013, with all other variables held constant, the annualized net interest expense would decrease by approximately EUR 18 million. This impact was based on the outstanding net cash position at December 31, 2013.

Equity price risk

Equity price risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in equity prices.

Philips is a shareholder in some publicly listed companies, including TPV Technology Limited. As a result, Philips is exposed to potential financial loss through movements in their share prices. The aggregate equity price exposure in such financial assets amounted to approximately EUR 12 million at year-end 2014 (2013: EUR 71 million). Philips does not hold derivatives in its own stock or in the abovementioned listed companies. Philips is also a shareholder in several privately-owned companies amounting to EUR 117 million. As a result, Philips is exposed to potential value adjustments.

Commodity price risk

Commodity price risk is the risk that the fair value or future cash flows of a financial instrument will fluctuate because of changes in commodity prices.

Philips is a purchaser of certain base metals, precious metals and energy. Philips hedges certain commodity price risks using derivative instruments to minimize significant, unanticipated earnings fluctuations caused by commodity price volatility. The commodity price derivatives that Philips enters into are accounted for as cash flow hedges to offset forecasted purchases. As of December 2014, a loss of EUR 0.7 million was deferred in equity as a result of these hedges. A 10% increase in the market price of all commodities as of December 31, 2014 would increase the fair value of the derivatives by EUR 0.7 million.

As of December 2013, a loss of EUR 2.2 million was deferred in equity as a result of these hedges. A 10% increase in the market price of all commodities as of December 31, 2013 would increase the fair value of the derivatives by EUR 1.4 million.

Credit risk

Credit risk represents the loss that would be recognized at the reporting date, if counterparties failed completely to perform their payment obligations as contracted. Credit risk is present within Philips trade receivables. To have better insights into the credit exposures, Philips performs ongoing evaluations of the financial and non-financial condition of its customers and adjusts credit limits when appropriate. In instances where the creditworthiness of a customer is determined not to be sufficient to grant the credit limit required, there are a number of mitigation tools that can be utilized to close the gap including reducing payment terms, cash on delivery, pre-payments and pledges on assets.

Philips invests available cash and cash equivalents with various financial institutions and is exposed to credit risk with these counterparties. Philips is also exposed to credit risks in the event of non-performance by financial institutions with respect to financial derivative instruments. Philips actively manages concentration risk and on a daily basis measures the potential loss under certain stress scenarios, should a financial institution default. These worst-case scenario losses are monitored and limited by the Company.

The Company does not enter into any financial derivative instruments to protect against default by financial institutions. However, where possible the Company requires all financial institutions with whom it deals in derivative transactions to complete legally enforceable netting agreements under an International Swap Dealers Association master agreement or otherwise prior to trading, and whenever possible, to have a strong credit rating from Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s Investor Services. Philips also regularly monitors the development of the credit risk of its financial counterparties. Wherever possible, cash is invested and financial transactions are concluded with financial institutions with strong credit ratings or with governments or government-backed institutions.

Below table shows the credit ratings of the financial institutions with which Philips had short-term deposits above EUR 25 million as of December 31, 2014:

Philips Group
Credit risk with number of counterparties for deposits above EUR 25 million
2014
 
25-100 million
100-500 million
500-2,000 million
AA-rated governments
AA-rated government banks
AAA-rated bank counterparties
AA-rated bank counterparties
2
1
A-rated bank counterparties
7
3
 
9
4

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For an overview of the overall maximum credit exposure of the group’s financial assets, please refer to note (30) Fair value of financial assets and liabilities for details of carrying amounts and fair value.

Country risk

Country risk is the risk that political, legal, or economic developments in a single country could adversely impact our performance. The country risk per country is defined as the sum of the equity of all subsidiaries and associated companies in country cross-border transactions, such as intercompany loans, accounts receivable from third parties and intercompany accounts receivable. The country risk is monitored on a regular basis.

As of December 31, 2014, the Company had country risk exposure of EUR 8.5 billion in the United States, EUR 2.6 billion in Belgium and EUR 1.8 billion in China (including Hong Kong). Other countries higher than EUR 500 million are United Kingdom (EUR 709 million) and Japan (EUR 576 million). Countries where the risk exceeded EUR 300 million but was less than EUR 500 million are Germany, Malaysia, Poland and Saudi Arabia. The degree of risk of a country is taken into account when new investments are considered. The Company does not, however, use financial derivative instruments to hedge country risk.

Other insurable risks

Philips is covered for a broad range of losses by global insurance policies in the areas of property damage/business interruption, general and product liability, transport, directors’ and officers’ liability, employment practice liability, crime, and aviation product liability. The counterparty risk related to the insurance companies participating in the above mentioned global insurance policies are actively managed. As a rule Philips only selects insurance companies with a S&P credit rating of at least A-. Throughout the year the counterparty risk is monitored on a regular basis.

To lower exposures and to avoid potential losses, Philips has a global Risk Engineering program in place. The main focus of this program is on property damage and business interruption risks including company interdependencies. Regular on-site assessments take place at Philips locations and business critical suppliers by risk engineers of the insurer in order to provide an accurate assessment of the potential loss and its impact. The results of these assessments are shared across the Company’s stakeholders. On-site assessments are carried out against the predefined Risk Engineering standards which are agreed between Philips and the insurers. Recommendations are made in a Risk Improvement report and are monitored centrally. This is the basis for decision-making by the local management of the business as to which recommendations will be implemented.

For all policies, deductibles are in place, which vary from EUR 250,000 to EUR 2,500,000 per occurrence and this variance is designed to differentiate between the existing risk categories within Philips. Above this first layer of working deductibles, Philips operates its own re-insurance captive, which during 2014 retained EUR 2.5 million per occurrence for property damage and business interruption losses and EUR 5 million in the aggregate per year. For general and product liability claims, the captive retained EUR 1.5 million per claim and EUR 6 million in the aggregate. New contracts were signed on December 31, 2014, for the coming year, whereby the re-insurance captive retentions remained unchanged.

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